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Ethics Bibliography

General References

American College of Physicians. 1998. "Ethics Manual, 4th ed." Annals of Internal Medicine 128 (7): 576-594.

American Hospital Association. 1994. Values in Conflict: Ethical Issues in Health Care, 2nd ed. Chicago: American Hospital Association.

Barnett, K. and M. Pittman. 2001. "Doing Good and Doing Well" Healthcare Forum Journal 44 (3): 12-19.

Catholic Health Association. 1991. Corporate Ethics in Healthcare. St. Louis, MO: CHA.

Chaiken, M., R.D. Porter and I.C. Schick. 2001. "Core Competencies in Ethics" Journal of Health Administration Education Special Issue 149-157.

Darr, K. 1997. Ethics in Health Services Management, 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press.

deGeorge, R. 1995. Business Ethics, 4th ed. New York: Macmillan.

Devettere, R. 2000. Practical Decision Making in Health Care Ethics: Cases and Concepts, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Freeman, R. (editor). 1991. Business Ethics: The State of the Art. New York: Oxford University Press.

Friedman, E. (editor). 1992. Choices and Conflict: Explorations in Health Care Ethics. Chicago: American Hospital Association.

——. 1996. The Right Thing: Ten Years of Ethics Columns from the Healthcare Forum Journal. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Grafius, L. 1995. Ethics for Everyone: A Practical Guide to Interdisciplinary Biomedical Ethics Education. Chicago: American Hospital Publishing Inc.

Griffith, J. 1993. The Moral Challenges of Health Care Management. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Hall, R.T. 2000. An Introduction to Healthcare Organizational Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hiller, M. 1986. Ethics and Health Administration: Ethical Decision Making in Health Management. Arlington, TX: Association of University Programs in Health Administration.

Hofmann, P. and W.A. Nelson, editors. 2001. Managing Ethically: An Executive’s Guide. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Kuczewski, M., and R. Pinkus. 1999. An Ethics Casebook for Hospitals: Practical Approaches to Everyday Cases. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Macklin, R. 1987. Mortal Choices: Ethical Dilemmas in Modern Medicine. Boston: Howard Mifflin Company.

Nash, L. 1981 "Ethics Without the Sermon." Harvard Business Review 59 (6): 79-90.

Paine, L. 1994. "Managing for Organizational Integrity." Harvard Business Review 72 (2): 106-118.

Perry, F. 2001. The Tracks We Leave: Ethics in Healthcare Management. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Rachels, J. 1982. "Can Ethics Provide Answers?" Hastings Center Report 12 (3): 32-40.

Reiser, S. 1994. "The Ethical Life of Health Care Organizations." Hastings Center Report 24 (6): 28-35.

Spencer, E., A. Mills, M. Rorty, and P. Werhane. 2000. Organization Ethics in Health Care. New York: Oxford Press.

Stark, A. 1993. "What's the Matter with Business Ethics?" Harvard Business Review 71 (3): 38-48.

Tamborini-Martin, S., and K. Hanley. 1989. "The Importance of Being Ethical." Health Progress 70 (5): 24-27, 82.

Warnock, G. 1993. "The Object of Morality." Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (3): 255-258.

Werhane, P. 1990. "The Ethics of Health Care as a Business." Business & Professional Ethics Journal 9 (3 & 4): 7-20.

Woodstock Theological Center. 1995. Ethical Considerations in the Business Aspects of Health Care. Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Worthley, J. A. 1997. The Ethics of the Ordinary in Healthcare: Concepts and Cases. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Managed Care

Agich, G., and H. Foster. 2000. Conflicts of Interest and Management in Managed Care. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (2): 189-204.

Buchanan, A. 1998. "Managed Care: Rationing Without Justice, But Not Unjustly." Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law 23 (4): 617-634.

Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. 1995. "Ethical Issues in Managed Care." Journal of the American Medical Association 273 (4): 330-335.

Emanuel, E. 2000. "Justice and Managed Care: Four Principles for the Just Allocation of Health Care Resources." Hastings Center Report 30 (3): 8-16.

Friedman, L., and G. Savage. 1998. "Can Ethical Management and Managed Care Coexist?" Health Care Management Review 23 (2): 56-62.

Gervais, K., R. Priester, D. Vawter, K. Otte and M. Solberg. 1999. Ethical Challenges in Managed Care: A Casebook. Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Greene, J. 1997. "Has Managed Care Lost Its Soul?" Hospitals & Health Networks 71 (10): 36-42.

Higgins, W. 2000. "Ethical Guidance in the Era of Managed Care: An Analysis of the American College of Healthcare Executives’ Code of Ethics." Journal of Healthcare Management 45 (1): 32-34.

Jacobson, P., and M. Cahill. 2000. "Applying Fiduciary Responsibilities in the Managed Care Context." American Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 26 (2 & 3): 155-173.

Khushf, G. 1999. "The Case for Managed Care." Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (5): 415-550.

Morreim, E. 1995. Balancing Act: The New Medical Ethics of Medicine’s New Economics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

——. 1999. "Assessing Quality of Care: New Twists from Managed Care." Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (2): 88-99.

Paris, J., and S. Post. 2000. "Managed Care, Cost Control, and the Common Good." Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (2): 182-188.

Pellegrino, E. 1997. "Managed Care at the Bedside: How Do We Look in the Moral Mirror?" Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (4): 321-330.

Perkel, R. 1996. "Ethics and Managed Care." Medical Clinics of North America 80 (2): 263-278.

Randel, L., S.D. Pearson, J.E. Sabin, T. Hyams and E.J. Emanuel. 2001 "How Managed Care Can Be Ethical" Health Affairs 20 (4): 43-56.

Veatch, R. 1997. "Who Should Manage Care?" Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (4): 391-401

Veatch, R., and C. Spicer. 1997. "Ethical Challenges in Managed Care." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (4).

Cost Containment and Resource Allocation

Asch, D., and P. Ubel. 1997. "Rationing by Any Other Name." New England Journal of Medicine 336 (23): 1668-1671.

Boyle, P., and E. Moskowitz. 1996. "Making Tough Resource Decisions." Health Progress 77 (6): 48-53.

Callahan, D. 2000. "Rationing, Equity, and Affordable Care." Health Progress 81 (4): 38-41.

Cochran, C., J. Kupersmith, and T. McGovern. 2000. "Justice, Allocation, and Managed Care." Health Progress 81 (4): 34-37, 41.

Daniels, N. 1986. "Why Saying No to Patients in the United States Is So Hard." New England Journal of Medicine 314 (21): 1380-83.

Grumbach, K., and T. Bodenheimer. 1994. "Painful vs. Painless Cost Control." Journal of the American Medical Association 272 (18): 1458-1464.

Powers, M., and R. Faden. 2000. "Inequalities in Healthcare: Four Generations of Discussion About Justice and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (2): 109-127.

Ubel, P., and S. Goold. 1997. "Recognizing Bedside Rationing: Clear Cases and Tough Calls." Annals of Internal Medicine 125 (1): 74-80.

Ethics Committees and Consultation

American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. 1998. "Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation." Glenview, IL: ASBH.

Aulisio, M., R. Arnold, and S. Youngner. 2000. "Health Care Ethics Consultation: Nature, Goals, and Competencies." Annals of Internal Medicine 133 (1): 59-69.

Blake, D.C. 2000. "Reinventing the Healthcare Ethics Committee." HEC Forum 12(1): 8-32.

Crigger, B.-J. 1995. "Negotiating the Moral Order: Paradoxes of Ethics Consultation." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 5 (2): 89-112

Harding, J. 1994. "The Role of Organizational Ethics Committees." Physician Executive 20 (2): 19-24.

Hirsch, N. 1999. "All in the Family–Siblings but not Twins: The Relationship of Clinical and Organizational Ethics Analysis." Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (3): 187-193.

Kelly, S. E., Marshall, P. A., Sanders, L.M., Raffin T.A., and Koenig, B.A. 1997. "Understanding the Practice of Ethics Consultation: Results of an Ethnographic Multi-Site Study." Journal of Clinical Ethics 8:136-149.

Lawry, T. 1999. "Ethicists Have Gone Digital." Health Progress 80 (5): 10-11.

McCullough, L. 1998. "Preventive Ethics, Managed Practice, and the Hospital Ethics Committee as a Resource for Physician Executives." Healthcare Ethics Committee Forum 10 (2): 136-151.

Myser, C., P. Donehower, and C. Frank. 1999. "Making the Most of Disequilibrium: Bridging the Gap Between Clinical and Organizational Ethics in a Newly Merged Healthcare Organization." Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (3): 194-201.

Nelson W., and G. Wlody. 1999. "The Evolving Role of Ethics Advisory Committees in VHA." Healthcare Ethics Committee Forum 9 (2): 129-146.

Potter, R. 1996. "From Clinical Ethics to Organizational Ethics: The Second Stage of the Evolution of Bioethics." Bioethics Forum 12 (2): 3-12.

——. 1999. "On Our Way to Integrated Bioethics: Clinical/Organizational/Communal." Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (2): 171-177.

Renz, D., and W. Eddy. 1996. "Organizations, Ethics, and Health Care: Building an Ethics Infrastructure for a New Era." Bioethics Forum 12 (2): 29-39.

Scofield, G. R. 1993. "Ethics Consultation: The Least Dangerous Profession?" Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (4) 417-426.

Spencer, E. 1997. "A New Role for Institutional Ethics Committees: Organizational Ethics." Journal of Clinical Ethics 8 (4): 372-376.


Badaracco, J., and R. Ellsworth. 1989. Leadership and the Quest for Integrity. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Collins, J. 2001. "Level 5 Leadership: The Triumph of Humility and Fierce Resolve." Harvard Business Review 79 (1): 66-76.

Dye, C. F. 2000. Leadership in Healthcare: Values at the Top. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Fenner, K., and M. Basford. 1999. "How Can Leaders Ensure Organizational Integrity?" Trustee 52 (3): 26-27.

Friedman, E. 2001 "The Butler Did It." Healthcare Forum Journal 44 (4): 5-7.

Jennings, B., B.H. Gray, V.A. Sharpe, L. Weiss, and A.R. Fleischman. 2002. "Ethics and Trusteeship for Health Care: Hospital Board Service in Turbulent Times." Hastings Center Report Special Supplement 32 (4): S1-S28.

Lombardi, D. N. 1997. Reorganization and Renewal: Strategies for Healthcare Leaders. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Messick, D. and M. Bazerman. 1996. "Ethical Leadership and the Psychology of Decision Making." Sloan Management Review 37 (2): 9-22.

Taylor, C. 2001. "The Buck Stops Here." Health Progress 82 (5): 37-47.

Clinical Care Issues

Berger, J., and F. Rosener. 1996. "The Ethics of Practice Guidelines." Archives of Internal Medicine 156 (18): 2051-2056.

Hilfiker, D. 1984. "Facing Our Mistakes." New England Journal of Medicine 310: 118-122.

Hofmann, P. 2001. "Navigating Differences in Patient Values and Preferences." Healthcare Executive 16 (2) 58-59.

Howe, E. 1999. "Organizational Ethics’ Greatest Challenges." Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (4): 263-270.

——. 2000. "Leaving Luputa: What Doctors Aren’t Taught About Informed Consent." Journal of Clinical Ethics 11 (1): 3-13.

Institute of Medicine. 1999. To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine and National Academy Press.

Levinsky, N. 1996. "Social, Institutional, and Economic Barriers to the Exercise of Patients' Rights." New England Journal of Medicine 334 (8): 532-534.

Lo, B. 2000. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: A Guide for Clinicians. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Martone, M. 2002. "Decisionmaking Issues in the Rehabilitation Process" Hastings Center Report 31 (2): 36-41.

Mazur, D. 2001. Shared Decision Making in the Patient-Physician Relationship. Tampa, FL: American College of Physician Executives.

O’Toole, B. 1998. "Four Ways People Approach Ethics." Health Progress 79 (6): 38-41, 43.

Rhodes, R. 1998 "Futility and the Goals of Medicine." Journal of Clinical Ethics 9 (2): 194-205.

Rubin, S. B. and L. Zoloth, editors. 2000. Margin of Error: The Ethics of Mistakes in the Practice of Medicine, Hagerstown, MD; University Publishing.

Smith, M., and H. Forster. 2000. "Morally Managing Medical Mistakes." Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (1): 38-53.

Solovy, A. 1999. "The Price of Dignity." Hospitals & Health Networks 73 (3): 30.

Woolf, S. 1999. "The Need for Perspective in Evidence-Based Medicine." Journal of the American Medical Association 282 (24): 2358-2365.

Organization and Management Issues

Batts, C.F. 1998. "Making Ethics an Organizational Priority. 1998. Healthcare Forum Journal 41 (1): 38-42.

Boyle. P., E. DuBose, S. Ellingson, D. Guinn and D. McCurdy. 2001. Organizational Ethics in Health Care: Principles, Cases, and Practical Solutions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Blake, D. 1999. "Organizational Ethics: Creating Structural and Cultural Change in Healthcare Organizations." The Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (3): 187-193.

Blustein, J., L. Post, and N. Dubler. 2002. Ethics for Health Care Organizations: Theory, Case Studies, and Tools. New York: United Hospital Fund of New York.

Brett, A., J. Raymond, D. Saunders, and G. Khushf. 1998. "An Ethics Discussion Series for Hospital Administrators. Healthcare Ethics Committee Forum 10 (20).

Cassidy, J. 1998. "Calvary Hospital Focuses on Ethics." Health Progress 79 (6): 48-50, 52.

Dwterm H. 2002. "Babel, Justice, and Democracy: Reflections on a Shortage of Interpreters at a Public Hospital." Hastings Center Report 31 (2): 31-36.

Ehlen, K., and G. Sprenger. 1998. "Ethics and Decision Making in Healthcare." Journal of Healthcare Management 43 (3): 219-221.

Emanuel, L. 2000. "Ethics and the Structures of Healthcare." Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (2): 151-168.

Freed, D. 1992. "The Long Distance Administrator." Health Management Quarterly 14 (4): 17-20.

French, P. 1979. "The Corporation as a Moral Person." American Philosophical Quarterly 3: 207-215.

Giblin, M., and M. Meaney. 1998. "Corporate Compliance Is Not Enough." Health Progress 79 (5): 30-31.

Goodstein, J., and B. Carney. 1999. "Actively Engaging Organizational Ethics in Healthcare: Four Essential Elements." Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (3): 224-229.

Goodstein, J., and R. L. Potter. 1999. "Beyond Financial Incentives: Organizational Ethics and Organizational Integrity." Healthcare Ethics Committee Forum 11 (4): 288-292.

Hall, R. 1999. "Confidentiality as an Organizational Ethics Issue." Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (3): 230-236.

Heller, J. 1999. "Framing Healthcare Compliance in Ethical Terms: A Taxonomy of Moral Choices." Healthcare Ethics Committee Forum 11 (4): 345-357.

Hofmann, P. 1996. "Achieving Ethical Behavior in Healthcare: Rhetoric Still Reigns Over Reality." Frontiers of Health Service Management 13 (2): 37-39.

——. 1996. "Hospital Mergers and Acquisitions: A New Catalyst for Examining Organizational Ethics." Bioethics Forum 13 (2): 45-48.

——. 1998. "Ethics and the CEO (case commentary)." Hospitals & Health Networks 72 (2): 32, 34.

____. 2002. "Morally Managing Executive Mistakes." Frontiers of Health Services Management 18 (3): 3-27.

Johnson, K. M. and K. Roebuck-Colgan. 1999. "Organizational Ethics and Sentinel Events: Doing the Right Thing When the Worst Thing Happens" The Journal of Clinical Ethics 10: (3) 237-241.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. 1998. "Ethical Issues and Patient Rights Across the Continuum of Care." Oakbrook Terrace, IL: JCAHO.

Kalb, P. 1999. "Health Care Fraud and Abuse." Journal of the American Medical Association 282 (12): 1163-1168.

Labb, D. 1999. "Defining Appropriate Care: A Matter of Perspective." Healthcare Executive 14 (5): 12-16.

Larson, L. 1999. "The Right Thing To Do." Trustee 52 (9): 8-12.

Levey, S., and J. Hill. 1986. Between Survival and Social Responsibility: In Search of an Ethical Balance." Journal of Health Administration Education 4 (2): 225-231.

Mills, A. 2002. "The Healthcare Organization: New Efficiency Endeavors and the Organization Ethics Program." Journal of Clinical Ethics 13 (1): 29-39.

Midgley, M. 1993. "Must Good Causes Compete? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2 (2): 131-139.

Nash, L. 1990. Good Intentions Aside: A Manager's Guide to Resolving Ethical Problems. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Olson, R. 1999. "The Postmodern Prescription: An Antidote to Hard Boundaries and Closed Systems in Healthcare Organizations." Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (3): 178-186.

Ozar, D., J. Berg, P. H. Werhane, and L. Emanuel. 2001. "Organizational Ethics in Health Care: Toward a Model for Ethical Decision Making by Provider Organizations." Institute for Ethics National Working Group Report. American Medical Association.

Relman, A. 1994. "Physicians and Business Managers: A Clash of Cultures." Health Management Quarterly XVI (3): 11-14.

Rovner, J. 1998. "Organizational Ethics: It’s Your Move." Health System Leader 5 (1): 4-12.

Rudnick, J. D., Jr. 1995. "Hospital Layoffs: One Facility’s Experience with a Work Force Reduction." Health Progress (September-October).

Schyve, P. 1996. "Patient Rights and Organization Ethics: The Joint Commission Perspective." Bioethics Forum 12 (2): 13-20.

Seely, C., and S. Goldberger. 1999. "Integrated Ethics: Synecdoche in Healthcare." Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (3): 202-209.

Spencer, E., and A. Mills. 1999. "Ethics in Healthcare Organizations." Healthcare Ethics Committee Forum 11 (4): 345-357.

Spencer, E. M., A .E. Mills, M.V. Rorty and P. H. Werhane 2000. Organization Ethics in Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weaver, G.R. and L.K. Trevino. 1999. "Compliance and Values Oriented Ethics Programs: Influences on Employees’ Attitudes and Behavior." Business Ethics Quarterly 9: 315-335.

Weber, L. 1997. "Taking on Organizational Ethics." Health Progress 78 (3): 20.

____. 2001. Business Ethics in Healthcare: Beyond Compliance. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

Werhane, P. 2000. "Ethics, Stakeholder Theory, and the Ethics of Healthcare Organizations." Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics. 9 (2): 169-181.

Worthley, J. A. 1999. Organizational Ethics in the Compliance Context: A Healthcare Management Challenge. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Mission and Code of Ethics

Arbuckle, G. 1999. "Mission and Business: Resolving the Tension." Health Progress 80 (5): 22-24, 28.

Bianco, D. 1998. "Considering Conversion?" Trustee 51 (10): 16-20.

Brien, A. 1996. "Regulating Virtue: Formulating, Engendering and Enforcing Corporate Ethics Codes." Business and Professional Ethics Journal 15 (1): 21-52.

Carlson, G. 1998. "Mission Possible." Healthcare Executive 13 (2): 52-53.

Rocky Mountain Center for Healthcare Ethics. 1998. Colorado Code of Ethics for Healthcare. Denver, CO: Rocky Mountain Center for Healthcare Ethics.

Tavistock Group. 1999. "A Shared Statement of Ethical Principles for Those Who Shape and Give Health Care." Annals of Internal Medicine 130 (2): 144-147.

Tuohey, J. 1998. "Covenant Model of Corporate Compliance." Health Progress 79 (4): 70-75.

Weil, P. and R. Harmata. 2002. "Rekindling the Flame: Routine Practices That Promote Hospital Community Leadership." Journal of Healthcare Management 47 (2): 98-109.


Bioethics Forum
Midwest Bioethics Center
1021-1025 Jefferson St.
Kansas City, MO 64105

Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
Cambridge University Press
40 W. 20th St.
New York, NY 10011-4211

Hastings Center Report
The Hastings Center
255 Elm Rd.
Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510

HEC Forum
Kluwer Academic Publishers
101 Philip Dr.
Norwell, MA 02061

Healthcare Executive
American College of Healthcare Executives
1 N. Franklin, Ste. 1700
Chicago, IL 60606-3529

Journal of Business Ethics
Kluwer Academic Publishers
101 Philip Dr.
Norwell, MA 02061

Journal of Clinical Ethics
University Publishing Group
12 S. Market St., Suite 300
Frederick, MD 21701

Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics
American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
765 Commonwealth Ave.
Boston, MA 02215

Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Johns Hopkins University Press
2715 N. Charles St.
Baltimore, MD 21218-4319

Selected Web Site Resources











Prepared by:

Paul B. Hofmann, Dr.P.H., FACHE
Vice President
Provenance Health System
Moraga, CA

William A. Nelson, Ph.D.
Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry (Ethics)
New York University School of Medicine
New York, NY