Administration Press (HAP) requires author-date citations and a complete
list of the accompanying references at the end of each chapter. The
following represents HAP's house reference style. Refer to The Chicago
Manual of Style, 15th edition (University of Chicago Press) for
answers to questions not addressed in these guidelines.
reference provided at the end of the chapter must have a corresponding
citation in the text, and vice versa.
references alphabetically, then by date if multiple sources list the
the initial letter in all words in the titles (except articles and
prepositions). This is different from the style used in some medical/healthcare
journals (e.g., use "A Time to Heal" not "A time to
should always have a volume number followed by a season, month, or
issue number in parenthesesthe issue number is preferred [e.g.,
Frontiers of Health Services Management 13 (2): 5-34.].
book references, the state in which the publisher resides should be
abbreviated using the two-letter postal abbreviations.
page numbers of chapters or articles are to be given in references.
Specific page numbers need only be given in the text citation if you
are using a direct quote from that reference.
the author's initials (first and middle if listed), not first names.
- In each
reference list entry, all author names are to be listed. Use
"et al." only in the author-date in-text citations
(and only if there are more than three authors).
government documents published by Congress or federal departments,
add U.S. before the official department/office name and alphabetize
accordingly (e.g., General Accounting Office becomes U.S. General
- Do not embed notes electronically
in the text to link to the reference list or endnotes; simply cite or number them appropriately to correspond
to the reference or numbered note at the end of the chapter. Such links, if used, will have to be
removed by the typesetter, which may result in lost content.
(Author-date style in text)
author: (Goldsmith 2003) or "Goldsmith (2003) maintains
Two authors: (Fried and Gaydos 2002) or "In a recent study,
Fried and Gaydos (2002) found..."
Three authors: (Luke, Walston, and Plummer 2004) or "Luke,
Walston, and Plummer (2004) cited..."
Four or more authors: (Arnold et al. 2003) or "According
to Arnold et al. (2003)..."
Two or more references together: (Griffith, White, and Cahill
2003; Barton 2003)
Two or more references together by the same author: (Coile 2002,
Two or more references by the same author for the same year: (Dye
2000a, 2000b); these must correspond to the distinction in the
When citing specific page number: (Atchison 2004, 54)
Note: In reference lists or bibliographies, a 3-em dash is used
to indicate that subsequent entries are by the exact same author(s).
Harris, D. M. 2003. Contemporary Issues in Healthcare Law and Ethics,
2d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press.
Schaffner, J., and P. Ludwig-Beymer. 2003. Rx for the Nursing Shortage:
A Guidebook. Chicago: Health Administration Press.
or More Authors
Luke, R. D., S. L. Walston, and P. M. Plummer. 2004. Healthcare Strategy:
In Pursuit of Competitive Advantage. Chicago: Health Administration
Iezzoni, L. I., ed. 2003. Risk Adjustment for Measuring Health Care
Outcomes, 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press.
in an Edited Book
Berlowitz, D., and A. K. Rosen. 2003. "Risk Adjustment for Studying
Long-Term Care." In Risk Adjustment for Measuring Health Care
Outcomes, 3d ed., edited by L. I. Iezzoni, 383-99. Chicago: Health
Gershon, H. J. 2003. "The Art of Competing Against Yourself: Are
You a Cannibal?" Journal of Healthcare Management 48 (4):
Glabman, M. 2003. "A Safety Net with Holes." Trustee
Murphy, P. C. 2000. "What a Book Can Do: Silent Spring and Media-Borne
Public Debate." Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina.
Hoskinson, D. 1999. Personal communication, Fort Lauderdale, FL, May
California HealthCare Foundation. 2002. "PEP-C Report: What Patients
Think of California Hospitals." [Online article or information;
retrieved 10/21/02.] http://www.chcf.org/documents/quality/PEPCTechReport.pdf.
If notes to the text are necessary, please use endnotes rather than
footnotes. Endnotes should be kept to a minimum, should appear at the
end of the chapter, and should conform, if a reference, to the styles
listed here. For example:
1. For more in-depth information on this subject, please see Dansky,
K. H., D. Brannon, and S. Wangsness. 1994. "Human Resource Management
Practices and Patient Satisfaction in Home Health Care." Home
Health Care Services Quarterly 15 (1): 43-56.
2. Klecka, W. R. 1980. Discriminant Analysis. Newbury Park, CA:
for Reference Information
Note: These references will need to be submitted in HAP style.
One very useful online source of healthcare-related journal/article
information is PubMed, which can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi.
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