Reference/Citation Guidelines

Health Administration Press (HAP) requires author-date citations and a complete list of the accompanying references at the end of each chapter. The following represents HAP's house reference style. Refer to The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (University of Chicago Press) for answers to questions not addressed in these guidelines.

General Guidelines

  • Each reference provided at the end of the chapter must have a corresponding citation in the text, and vice versa.
  • Order references alphabetically, then by date if multiple sources list the same author(s).
  • Capitalize the initial letter in all words in the titles (except articles and prepositions). This is different from the style used in some medical/healthcare journals (e.g., use "A Time to Heal" not "A time to heal").
  • Periodicals should always have a volume number followed by a season, month, or issue number in parentheses—the issue number is preferred [e.g., Frontiers of Health Services Management 13 (2): 5-34.].
  • For book references, the state in which the publisher resides should be abbreviated using the two-letter postal abbreviations.
  • Inclusive page numbers of chapters or articles are to be given in references. Specific page numbers need only be given in the text citation if you are using a direct quote from that reference.
  • Use the author's initials (first and middle if listed), not first names.
  • In each reference list entry, all author names are to be listed. Use "et al." only in the author-date in-text citations (and only if there are more than three authors).
  • For government documents published by Congress or federal departments, add U.S. before the official department/office name and alphabetize accordingly (e.g., General Accounting Office becomes U.S. General Accounting Office).
  • Do not embed notes electronically in the text to link to the reference list or endnotes; simply cite or number them appropriately to correspond to the reference or numbered note at the end of the chapter. Such links, if used, will have to be removed by the typesetter, which may result in lost content.

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Citations (Author-date style in text)

One author: (Goldsmith 2003) or "Goldsmith (2003) maintains…"

Two authors: (Fried and Gaydos 2002) or "In a recent study, Fried and Gaydos (2002) found..."

Three authors: (Luke, Walston, and Plummer 2004) or "Luke, Walston, and Plummer (2004) cited..."

Four or more authors: (Arnold et al. 2003) or "According to Arnold et al. (2003)..."

Two or more references together: (Griffith, White, and Cahill 2003; Barton 2003)

Two or more references together by the same author
: (Coile 2002, 2003)

Two or more references by the same author for the same year
: (Dye 2000a, 2000b); these must correspond to the distinction in the reference list

When citing specific page number: (Atchison 2004, 54)

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Note: In reference lists or bibliographies, a 3-em dash is used to indicate that subsequent entries are by the exact same author(s).

One Author
Harris, D. M. 2003. Contemporary Issues in Healthcare Law and Ethics, 2d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Two Authors
Schaffner, J., and P. Ludwig-Beymer. 2003. Rx for the Nursing Shortage: A Guidebook. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Three or More Authors
Luke, R. D., S. L. Walston, and P. M. Plummer. 2004. Healthcare Strategy: In Pursuit of Competitive Advantage. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Iezzoni, L. I., ed. 2003. Risk Adjustment for Measuring Health Care Outcomes, 3d ed. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Chapter in an Edited Book
Berlowitz, D., and A. K. Rosen. 2003. "Risk Adjustment for Studying Long-Term Care." In Risk Adjustment for Measuring Health Care Outcomes, 3d ed., edited by L. I. Iezzoni, 383-99. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Journal Articles
Gershon, H. J. 2003. "The Art of Competing Against Yourself: Are You a Cannibal?" Journal of Healthcare Management 48 (4): 233-34.

Magazine Articles
Glabman, M. 2003. "A Safety Net with Holes." Trustee June, 9-12.

Unpublished Papers
Murphy, P. C. 2000. "What a Book Can Do: Silent Spring and Media-Borne Public Debate." Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina.

Unpublished Material/Personal Communications
Hoskinson, D. 1999. Personal communication, Fort Lauderdale, FL, May 20.

Web site
California HealthCare Foundation. 2002. "PEP-C Report: What Patients Think of California Hospitals." [Online article or information; retrieved 10/21/02.]

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If notes to the text are necessary, please use endnotes rather than footnotes. Endnotes should be kept to a minimum, should appear at the end of the chapter, and should conform, if a reference, to the styles listed here. For example:

1. For more in-depth information on this subject, please see Dansky, K. H., D. Brannon, and S. Wangsness. 1994. "Human Resource Management Practices and Patient Satisfaction in Home Health Care." Home Health Care Services Quarterly 15 (1): 43-56.

2. Klecka, W. R. 1980. Discriminant Analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Source for Reference Information
One very useful online source of healthcare-related journal/article information is PubMed, which can be accessed at

Note: These references will need to be submitted in HAP style.

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